Punishment refers to an undesirable consequence aimed to reduce an undesired behavior. Punishment, once considered an effective and even necessary means of socializing children, has been identified to be a marker of a large spectrum of unfavorable developmental consequences. The drawbacks of punishment that we see reiterated by modern parenting experts and counselors have been explained by various psychologists. Psychologists have long recommended the use of reinforcement to control behavior instead of punishment.

Punishment doesn’t teach how to deal with underlying problems

Just as the treatment of a brain tumor with a pain relief medicine does not address the underlying problem, the masking of the symptoms of an underlying…

The two Astronauts Gemini IV, Edward H. White II and command pilot James A. McDivitt, had difficulty first opening and then closing the hatch on 3 June 1965, on the mission of America’s first spacewalk. White found the hatch as hard to push up in zero g as it had been on the ground. They successfully managed to perform both tasks and returned safely to Earth after their successful spacewalk. However, what caused the hatch to stick? Initially, Cold Welding was thought to be the culprit.

Cold welding is a solid-state welding process which requires little or no heat to…

Since the beginning of mankind, humanity has always wondered if they exist alone in the universe. Once humans gained enough resources and advanced in technology, that they could start searching for the life on other planets, they started searching for ancient or current life on different planets.

Before we could answer this complex question, we needed to get the idea of What is needed to sustain life on other planets. NASA’s exoplanet program was launched to find unmistakable signs of current life on a planet beyond Earth. …

A black hole is a region in space where huge mass is concentrated in such a small space making the gravity so strong that nothing can escape it, not even light. Albert Einstein first predicted the existence of black holes in 1916, with his general theory of relativity. The term “black hole” was coined many years later in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler.

An artistic representation of a black hole


Center of a black hole is called singularity. It is the point in spacetime which contains a huge mass in an infinitely small space, where density and gravity become infinite and space-time curves infinitely. Its…

Heisenberg introduced his famous relations in an article of 1927, entitled “Ueber den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik”. A (partial) translation of this title is: “On the anschaulich content of quantum theoretical kinematics and mechanics”.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is often misunderstood with The observer’s effect which states that measurements of certain systems cannot be made without affecting the system, that is, without changing something in a system. We always hear the same story:

To accurately measure the position of an electron, a light of very short wavelength should be shone on the electron since we can only…

Rafay Qayyum

A physics enthusiast

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store